By Safa Kasap, Harry Ruda, Yann Boucher
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Extra info for An illustrated dictionary of optoelectronics and photonics: Important terms and effects
When we consider the Maxwell velocity distribution of the gas atoms in the laser tube, we find that the linewidth ∆υ1/2 between the half-intensity points (full width at half maximum FWHM) in the output intensity vs. frequency spectrum is given by 2 kBT ln(2) ∆υ 1 / 2 = 2 υ o Mc 2 where M is the mass of the lasing atom or molecule and υo is the center frequency of the spectrum (source emission frequency). See also laser output spectrum. Doppler effect is the change in the measured frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source relative to the observer.
F(E) Field effect transistor (FET) is a transistor whose normal operation is based on controlling the conductance of a channel between two electrodes by the application of an external field. The effect of the applied field is to control the current flow. The current is due to majority carrier drift from the source to the drain and is controlled by the voltage applied to the gate. e. I V FF = m m IscVoc where FF is the fill factor, Im and Vm are the current and voltage corresponding to maximum power transfer to load, and Isc and Voc are the short circuit current and open circuit voltage.
The electric field in the EM wave couples with the free charges in the medium and drifts these carriers, the result of which is a transfer of energy from the EM wave to the medium via the scattering of the free carriers (the so-called σE2 loss where σ is the conductivity and E is the electric field). Since free carrier absorption represents loss, it contributes to the imaginary part of the relative permittivity εr″by εr″ = σ/(εoω) where σ is the electrical conductivity and w is the angular frequency of the EM wave.
An illustrated dictionary of optoelectronics and photonics: Important terms and effects by Safa Kasap, Harry Ruda, Yann Boucher